The percentage of female managers is only 12.5% in Japan, far below the global average of 31.4%. This study aimed to investigate the low ambition for promotion (AFP) and its associated factors in female and male Japanese workers, focusing on gender differences. This cross-sectional survey evaluated the sense of coherence (SOC), mental health, physical health, health-related productivity loss, and household burden of the spouse. The data included 1257 women and 1206 men aged 20-39 who participated in our online survey in Japan for analysis. The high SOC, worse health conditions, and productivity loss were negatively associated with low AFP, while the household burden of spouse was positively associated for both genders, and the association was more robust in women. Female workers with high AFP were in poorer health conditions than male workers. Women's AFP was associated with their SOC, mental health, physical health, and spouse's household workload, and these factors need to be considered from various perspectives to increase promotion motivation and mitigate health risk concerns for female workers, hoping to be a manager.